Environ Sci Ecotechnol. 2022 Nov 19;14:100227. doi: 10.1016/j.ese.2022.100227. eCollection 2023 Apr.
Efficient wastewater treatment accompanied by sustainable “nutrients/pollutants waste-wastewater-resources/energy nexus” management is acting as a prominent and urgent global issue since severe pollution has occurred increasingly. Diverting wastes from wastewater into the value-added microalgal-biomass stream is a promising goal using biological wastewater treatment technologies. This review proposed an idea of upgrading the current microalgal wastewater treatment by using immobilized microalgal system. Firstly, a systematic analysis of microalgal immobilization technology is displayed through an in-depth discussion on why using immobilized microalgae for wastewater treatment. Subsequently, the main technical approaches employed for microalgal immobilization and pollutant removal mechanisms by immobilized microalgae are summarized. Furthermore, from high-tech technologies to promote large-scale production and application potentials in diverse wastewater and bioreactors to downstream applications lead upgradation closer, the feasibility of upgrading existing microalgal wastewater treatment into immobilized microalgal systems is thoroughly discussed. Eventually, several research directions are proposed toward the future immobilized microalgal system for microalgal wastewater treatment upgrading. Together, it appears that using immobilization for further upgrading the microalgae-based wastewater treatment can be recognized as an achievable alternative to make microalgal wastewater treatment more realistic. The information and perspectives provided in this review also offer a feasible reference for upgrading conventional microalgae-based wastewater treatment.