Biogenic nanoparticles have potential roles in the growth and development of plants and animals as they are ecofriendly and free of chemical contaminants. In this study, we assessed the effects of phytomediated zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnONPs) on shoot growth, biochemical markers, and antioxidant system response in Ochradenus arabicus, which is a medicinal plant. The shoot length and fresh and dry weights were found to be higher in groups with 5 and 10 mg/L ZnONPs than in the control. At high concentrations of ZnONPs (50, 100, and 300 mg/L), biomass was decreased in a concentration-dependent manner. The shoot number was observed to be highest at 50 mg/L among all applied concentrations of ZnONPs. The levels of the stress markers proline and TBARS were found to be higher in shoots treated with 100 and 300 mg/L ZnONPs than in the control as well as NP-treated shoots. The levels of antioxidant enzymes were significantly increased at high concentrations of nanoparticles compared with the control. Thus, synthesized phytomediated ZnONPs from shoots of O. arabicus and their application to the same organ of O. arabicus in vitro were found to be effective as a low concentration of nanoparticles promoted shoot growth, resulting in high biomass accumulation. Thus, using green nanotechnology, such endemic plants could be conserved in vitro and multiple shoots could be produced by reducing the phytohormone concentration for multiple uses, such as the production of potential secondary metabolites.