Impacts of integrating engineering design process into STEM makerspace on renewable energy unit to foster students’ system thinking skills

Heliyon. 2023 Apr 1;9(4):e15100. doi: 10.1016/j.heliyon.2023.e15100. eCollection 2023 Apr.


Currently, science education systems around the world are faced with global challenges, especially in anticipating environmental changes related to sustainable development programs. Complex system problems related to climate change, reduced fossil-based energy reserves, and social environmental problems that have an impact on the economy have made stakeholders aware of the Education for Sustainability Development (ESD) program. This study aims to examine the effectiveness of STEM-PBL integrated Engineering Design Process (EDP) in renewable energy learning units to improve students’ system thinking skills. The quantitative experimental research with a non-equivalent control group design was conducted on 67 high school students in XI grades. The results showed that the performance of students who were taught with STEM-EDP was better than students who studied with traditional STEM learning approach. In addition, this learning strategy also encourages students to be actively involved in every EDP process so that they show good performance in mind-on and hands-on activities which have an impact on increasing students’ system thinking abilities. Furthermore, the STEM-EDP learning is implemented to develop students’ ability to design through applied technology and engineered activities, paying special attention to design-based theory. It does not require students and teachers to prepare super-sophisticated technology, because the integration of technology in this learning design used cheap, simple and ‘easy to find’ equipments, to create more meaningful learning packages. In the critical pedagogy, STEM-PBL integrated EDP can be used to systematically foster students’ STEM literacy and thinking skills through the engineering design thinking process, thus expanding students’ cognitive building and perspectives in reducing the routine in conventional pedagogy.

PMID:37096005 | PMC:PMC10121395 | DOI:10.1016/j.heliyon.2023.e15100


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