Collagen-based barrier membranes are nowadays the prevalent option for Guided Bone Regeneration (GBR) procedures. Xenogeneic collagen is highly biocompatible as it shares a similar structure to native human collagen, which prevents it from eliciting an exaggerated host immune response. Most commercially available collagen barrier membranes are porcine-derived, while bovine-derived alternatives are still rarely available. The aim of the present study was to investigate the tissue responses and the barrier functionality of a novel GBR membrane composed of bovine collagen type I (BM). Therefore, the subcutaneous implantation model in Wistar rats was performed to compare the novel medical device with two already clinically used native porcine-based barrier membranes, i.e., Jason® membrane (JM) and Bio-Gide® (BG), at 10-, 30-, 60-, and 90-days post implantationem. Histochemical and immunohistochemical stains were used for histopathological evaluation including a biocompatibility scoring according to the DIN EN ISO 10993-6 norm as well as histomorphometrical analyses of the occurrence of M1 and M2 macrophages and the transmembraneous vascularization. The bovine membrane exhibited a host tissue reaction that was comparable to both control materials, which was verified by the scoring results and the histomorphometrical macrophage measurements. Moreover, the novel membrane exhibited an integration pattern without material fragmentation up to day 60. At day 90, material fragmentation was observable that allowed for “secondary porosity” including transmembrane vascularization. The results of this study suggest that the novel bovine barrier membrane is fully biocompatible and suitable for indications that require GBR as a suitable alternative to porcine-sourced barrier membranes.