Influence of porosity on osteogenesis, bone growth and osteointegration in trabecular tantalum scaffolds fabricated by additive manufacturing

Front Bioeng Biotechnol. 2023 Jan 27;11:1117954. doi: 10.3389/fbioe.2023.1117954. eCollection 2023.


Porous tantalum implants are a class of materials commonly used in clinical practice to repair bone defects. However, the cumbersome and problematic preparation procedure have limited their widespread application. Additive manufacturing has revolutionized the design and process of orthopedic implants, but the pore architecture feature of porous tantalum scaffolds prepared from additive materials for optimal osseointegration are unclear, particularly the influence of porosity. We prepared trabecular bone-mimicking tantalum scaffolds with three different porosities (60%, 70% and 80%) using the laser powder bed fusing technique to examine and compare the effects of adhesion, proliferation and osteogenic differentiation capacity of rat mesenchymal stem cells on the scaffolds in vitro. The in vivo bone ingrowth and osseointegration effects of each scaffold were analyzed in a rat femoral bone defect model. Three porous tantalum scaffolds were successfully prepared and characterized. In vitro studies showed that scaffolds with 70% and 80% porosity had a better ability to osteogenic proliferation and differentiation than scaffolds with 60% porosity. In vivo studies further confirmed that tantalum scaffolds with the 70% and 80% porosity had a better ability for bone ingrowh than the scaffold with 60% porosity. As for osseointegration, more bone was bound to the material in the scaffold with 70% porosity, suggesting that the 3D printed trabecular tantalum scaffold with 70% porosity could be the optimal choice for subsequent implant design, which we will further confirm in a large animal preclinical model for better clinical use.

PMID:36777251 | PMC:PMC9911888 | DOI:10.3389/fbioe.2023.1117954


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