Front Microbiol. 2022 Jun 9;13:929730. doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2022.929730. eCollection 2022.
A number of anthropogenic and weathering activities accumulate heavy metals in soils, causing adverse effects on soil characteristics, microbial activity (diversity), agricultural practices, and underground aquifers. Controlling soil heavy metal pollution is difficult due to its persistence in soils, resulting in the deposition and transmission into the food web via agricultural food products, ultimately affecting human health. This review critically explores the potential for remediation of metal-contaminated soils using a biochar-based responsible approach. Plant-based biochar is an auspicious bio-based residue substance that can be used for metal-polluted soil remediation and soil improvement as a sustainable approach. Plants with rapid growth and increased biomass can meet the requirements for phytoremediation in large quantities. Recent research indicates significant progress in understanding the mechanisms of metal accumulation and contaminant movement in plants used for phytoremediation of metal-contaminated soil. Excessive contamination reduces plant biomass and growth, which has substantial hyperaccumulating possibilities and is detrimental to the phytoremediation process. Biochar derived from various plant sources can promote the growth and phytoremediation competence of native or wild plants grown in metal-polluted soil. Carbon-enriched biochar encourages native microbial growth by neutralizing pH and providing nutritional support. Thus, this review critically discusses the influence of plant and agricultural waste-based biochar on plant phytoremediation potential in metal-contaminated soils.