In recent years, polymer nanocomposites produced by combining nanofillers and a polymeric matrix are emerging as interesting materials. Polymeric composites have a wide range of applications due to the outstanding and enhanced properties that are obtained thanks to the introduction of nanoparticles. Therefore, understanding the filler-matrix relationship is an important factor in the continued growth of this scientific area and the development of new materials with desired properties and specific applications. Due to their performance in response to a magnetic field magnetic nanocomposites represent an important class of functional nanocomposites. Due to their properties, magnetic nanocomposites have found numerous applications in biomedical applications such as drug delivery, theranostics, etc. This article aims to provide an overview of the filler-polymeric matrix relationship, with a special focus on magnetic nanocomposites and their potential applications in the biomedical field.