Polymers (Basel). 2022 Aug 19;14(16):3388. doi: 10.3390/polym14163388.
Biosorbtive removal of the antibacterial drug, ethacridine lactate (EL), from aqueous solutions was investigated using as biosorbent Saccharomyces pastorianus residual biomass immobilized in calcium alginate. The aim of this work was to optimize the biosorption process and to evaluate the biosorption capacity in the batch system. Response surface methodology, based on a Box-Behnken design, was used to optimize the EL biosorption parameters. Two response functions (removal efficiency and biosorption capacity) were maximized dependent on three factors: initial concentration of EL solution, contact time, and agitation speed. The highest values for the studied functions (89.49%, 26.04 mg/g) were obtained in the following operational conditions: EL initial concentration: 59.73 mg/L; contact time: 94.26 min; agitation speed: 297.57 rpm. A number of nonlinear kinetic models, including pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order, Elovich, and Avrami, were utilized to validate the biosorption kinetic behavior of EL in the optimized conditions. The kinetic data fitted the pseudo-first-order and Avrami models. The experimental results demonstrated that the optimized parameters (especially the agitation speed) significantly affect biosorption and should be considered important in such studies.