Environ Dev Sustain. 2023 Feb 6:1-21. doi: 10.1007/s10668-023-02986-8. Online ahead of print.
The present study was conducted to investigate key drivers, barriers, and challenges towards Krabi’s sustainable energy. The provincial electricity demand was found to be continuously increasing, while its supply has relied on national grid which is not a sustainable practice. Krabi Goes Green roadmap has set a target to be self-reliance and 100% electricity from renewable energy (RE). This is a key driver for Krabi’s RE transition. Even though high RE resources potential was reported, installation of RE power plants can supply only about half of its annual demand. What would be key barriers and challenges to overcome the barriers were investigated via stakeholders’ interviews. Challenges or key success recommendation for each RE are briefly described. Krabi has high potential of both biomass and biogas from wastes of palm oil industry in the province. By the way, most of biomass and biogas power plants are VSPPs having non-firm-type power purchasing agreement (PPA) leading to unsecure electricity buying and selling. The PPA reconsidering was recommended by interviewees. In addition, new biomass power plants are public opposed due to emissions of solid biomass combustion pollutants. Waste-to-energy (WtE) is also high potential, but facing with public opposing as well. Some interviewees suggested installation of high efficiency end-of-pipe treatment facilities together with real-monitoring system must be compulsory for both biomass and WtE power plants. Solar PV is also high potential, but facing a big barrier of land limitation for solar farm installation. Therefore, solar rooftop has become the only option, but facing with a quota system. Reconsideration on the quota system policy as well as more simplify and transparent approval process are highly recommended for promoting solar energy both in the province and the whole country.
PMID:36778758 | PMC:PMC9900194 | DOI:10.1007/s10668-023-02986-8