Landscape and Clonal Dominance of Co-occurring Genomic Alterations in Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer Harboring MET Exon 14 Skipping

JCO Precis Oncol. 2021 Dec 13;5:PO.21.00135. doi: 10.1200/PO.21.00135. eCollection 2021.

ABSTRACT

MET exon 14 skipping alterations (METex14) comprise a diverse set of actionable oncogene drivers in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Recent studies have established the efficacy of tyrosine kinase inhibitors for this patient population. The landscape of co-occurring genetic alterations in METex14 NSCLC and their potential impact to therapeutic sensitivities has not yet been fully described.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: METex14 NSCLC cases were collected from three cohorts: the VISION trial, and data sets from Guardant360 and GenePlus. Clinicopathologic characteristics and METex14 mutation sites were analyzed and compared across data sets. Co-occurring genetic alterations and the clonality relationships to METex14 were evaluated.

RESULTS: Of 40,824 NSCLCs, 692 METex14 cases (1.7%) were identified, including 332 in Guardant360, 188 in VISION, and 172 in GenePlus. The demographics and mutation type and/or sites were similar in the Asian versus Western cohorts. MET amplification, which were found to be associated with sensitivity to MET kinase inhibitors, co-occurs in 7.6%-13.8% of cases, whereas kinase domain secondary mutation of MET co-occurs in 5%-6%. When co-occurring with METex14, EGFR mutations were often identified as the dominant clone (78%, 7 of 9), whereas when co-occurring, METex14 (39%, 7 of 18) and KRAS (44%, 8 of 18) had similar rates of clonal dominance. PIK3CA and PTEN mutations were almost always subclones (89%, 16 of 18) to METex14. Moreover, RET-CCDC6 fusion and EGFR mutation were detected following crizotinib treatment in two patients, suggesting novel mechanisms of resistance.

CONCLUSION: METex14 mutations frequently co-occur with other potential driver oncogenes with differing patterns of clonal dominance observed among the drivers. This cellular context can provide insights into whether METex14 is acting as a primary oncogenic driver or resistance mechanism and help guide treatment choices.

PMID:34957368 | PMC:PMC8694524 | DOI:10.1200/PO.21.00135

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