Biomaterial characteristics such as surface topographies have been shown to modulate macrophage phenotypes. The standard methodologies to measure macrophage response to biomaterials are marker-based and invasive. Raman microspectroscopy (RM) is a marker-independent, noninvasive technology that allows the analysis of living cells without the need for staining or processing. In the present study, we analyzed human monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs) using RM, revealing that macrophage activation by lipopolysaccharides (LPS), interferons (IFN), or cytokines can be identified by lipid composition, which significantly differs in M0 (resting), M1 (IFN-γ/LPS), M2a (IL-4/IL-13), and M2c (IL-10) MDMs. To identify the impact of a biomaterial on MDM phenotype and polarization, we cultured macrophages on titanium disks with varying surface topographies and analyzed the adherent MDMs with RM. We detected surface topography-induced changes in MDM biochemistry and lipid composition that were not shown by less sensitive standard methods such as cytokine expression or surface antigen analysis. Our data suggest that RM may enable a more precise classification of macrophage activation and biomaterial-macrophage interaction.