ACS Energy Lett. 2022 Aug 12;7(8):2611-2618. doi: 10.1021/acsenergylett.2c01120. Epub 2022 Jul 18.
Monitoring the precise lithium inventory of the graphitic carbon electrode within the Li-ion battery, in order to assess cell aging, has remained challenging. Herein, operando electrochemical Kerr-gated Raman spectroscopy measurements on microcrystalline graphite during complete lithium insertion and extraction are reported and compared to conventional continuous-wave Raman microscopy. Suppression of the fluorescence emission signals via use of the Kerr gate enabled the measurement of the Raman graphitic bands of highly lithiated graphite where 0.5 ≤ x ≤ 1 for Li x C6. The broad graphitic band initially centered at ca. 1590 cm-1 for Li0.5C6 linearly shifted to ca. 1564 cm-1 with further lithiation to LiC6, thus offering a sensitive diagnostic tool to interrogate high states of charge of graphitic carbon-based negative electrodes.