Sci Rep. 2023 Mar 3;13(1):3606. doi: 10.1038/s41598-023-30709-6.
Vigna radiata L., an imperative legume crop of Pakistan, faces hordes of damage due to fungi; infecting host tissues by the appressorium. The use of natural compounds is an innovative concern to manage mung-bean fungal diseases. The bioactive secondary metabolites of Penicillium species are well documented for their strong fungi-static ability against many pathogens. Presently, one-month-old aqueous culture filtrates of Penicillium janczewskii, P. digitatum, P. verrucosum, P. crustosum, and P. oxalicum were evaluated to check the antagonistic effect of different dilutions (0, 10, 20, … and 60%). There was a significant reduction of around 7-38%, 46-57%, 46-58%, 27-68%, and 21-51% in Phoma herbarum dry biomass production due to P. janczewskii, P. digitatum, P. verrucosum, P. crustosum, and P. oxalicum, respectively. Inhibition constants determined by a regression equation demonstrated the most significant inhibition by P. janczewskii. Finally, using real-time reverse transcription PCR (qPCR) the effect of P. Janczewskii metabolites was determined on the transcript level of StSTE12 gene involved in the development and penetration of appressorium. The expression pattern of the StSTE12 gene was determined by percent Knockdown (%KD) expression that was found to be decreased i.e. 51.47, 43.22, 40.67, 38.01, 35.97, and 33.41% for P. herbarum with an increase in metabolites concentrations viz., 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60% metabolites, respectively. In silico studies were conducted to analyze the role of Ste12 a transcriptional factor in the MAPK signaling pathway. The present study concludes a strong fungicidal potential of Penicillium species against P. herbarum. Further studies to isolate the effective fungicidal constituents of Penicillium species through GCMS analysis and determination of their role in signaling pathways are requisite.
PMID:36869200 | PMC:PMC9984459 | DOI:10.1038/s41598-023-30709-6