Management options for large plants of glyphosate-resistant feather fingergrass (Chloris virgata) in Australian fallow conditions

PLoS One. 2021 Dec 23;16(12):e0261788. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0261788. eCollection 2021.

ABSTRACT

Chloris virgata has become one of the most difficult glyphosate-resistant (GR) grass weeds in summer fallows in the eastern region of Australia. It germinates in several cohorts following rainfall events; therefore, growers are often tempted to wait for most of the weeds to emerge before herbicide application. However, by that time, some seedlings have reached an advanced stage and there is limited information on the efficacy and reliability of alternate herbicides when targeting large plants of GR C. virgata. A series of experiments were conducted to determine the efficacy of alternate herbicides for the control of GR C. virgata. Haloxyfop (80 g a.i. ha-1) on its own, in mixtures, or sequential applications of haloxyfop and paraquat or glufosinate provided 97 to 100% mortality of the 8-10 leaf stage plants. Glufosinate (1500 g a.i. ha-1) also provided complete control of plants at this growth stage. For larger plants at the 24-28 leaf stage, glufosinate, with or without additional tank-mixed adjuvants, generally did not provide full control, however did show very high levels of biomass reduction and panicle suppression at application rates of 750 or 1500 g a.i. ha-1. Haloxyfop (40 to 160 g a.i. ha-1) and clethodim (180 g a.i. ha-1) on their own achieved 96 to 100% mortality at this growth stage. When applied to large plants (40-50 leaf stage), a tank-mix of isoxaflutole plus paraquat demonstrated significantly higher levels of plant mortality and biomass reduction than either herbicide used alone, and this mixture appears to be synergistic when tested via the Colby equation for synergy or antagonism. Plant mortality was greater (83%) when isoxaflutole (75 g a.i. ha-1) plus paraquat (300 g a.i. ha-1) was taken up through the foliage and soil, compared with the foliage alone. This study identified alternative herbicide options for large plants of GR C. virgata.

PMID:34941971 | DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0261788

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