Molecules. 2022 May 21;27(10):3321. doi: 10.3390/molecules27103321.
Probiotics and probiotic therapy have been rapidly developing in recent years due to an increasing number of people suffering from digestive system disorders and diseases related to intestinal dysbiosis. Owing to their activity in the intestines, including the production of short-chain fatty acids, probiotic strains of lactic acid bacteria can have a significant therapeutic effect. The activity of probiotic strains is likely reduced by their loss of viability during gastrointestinal transit. To overcome this drawback, researchers have proposed the process of microencapsulation, which increases the resistance of bacterial cells to external conditions. Various types of coatings have been used for microencapsulation, but the most popular ones are carbohydrate and protein microcapsules. Microencapsulating probiotics with vegetable proteins is an innovative approach that can increase the health value of the final product. This review describes the different types of envelope materials that have been used so far for encapsulating bacterial biomass and improving the survival of bacterial cells. The use of a microenvelope has initiated the controlled release of bacterial cells and an increase in their activity in the large intestine, which is the target site of probiotic strains.