Mechanical strain induces ex vivo expansion of periosteum

PLoS One. 2022 Dec 30;17(12):e0279519. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0279519. eCollection 2022.

ABSTRACT

Segmental bone defects present complex clinical challenges. Nonunion, malunion, and infection are common sequalae of autogenous bone grafts, allografts, and synthetic bone implants due to poor incorporation with the patient’s bone. The current project explores the osteogenic properties of periosteum to facilitate graft incorporation. As tissue area is a natural limitation of autografting, mechanical strain was implemented to expand the periosteum. Freshly harvested, porcine periosteum was strained at 5 and 10% per day for 10 days with non-strained and free-floating samples serving as controls. Total tissue size, viability and histologic examination revealed that strain increased area to a maximum of 1.6-fold in the 10% daily strain. No change in tissue anatomy or viability via MTT or Ki67 staining and quantification was observed among groups. The osteogenic potential of the mechanical expanded periosteum was then examined in vivo. Human cancellous allografts were wrapped with 10% per day strained, fresh, free-floating, or no porcine periosteum and implanted subcutaneously into female, athymic mice. Tissue was collected at 8- and 16-weeks. Gene expression analysis revealed a significant increase in alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin in the fresh periosteum group at 8-weeks post implantation compared to all other groups. Values among all groups were similar at week 16. Additionally, histological assessment with H&E and Masson-Goldner Trichrome staining showed that all periosteal groups outperformed the non-periosteal allograft, with fresh periosteum demonstrating the highest levels of new tissue mineralization at the periosteum-bone interface. Overall, mechanical expansion of the periosteum can provide increased area for segmental healing via autograft strategies, though further studies are needed to explore culture methodology to optimize osteogenic potential.

PMID:36584151 | PMC:PMC9803115 | DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0279519

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