Mechanochemistry and Eco-Bases for Sustainable Michael Addition Reactions

Molecules. 2022 May 21;27(10):3306. doi: 10.3390/molecules27103306.


The Michael addition reaction was revisited with a full focus on sustainability combined with efficiency, using mechanochemistry in mild conditions. First, the synthesis of cyclopentenone derivatives was chosen as a model reaction to find optimal conditions in mechanochemistry while using classical but weak bases. The reaction was efficient (84-95% yields), fast (2-6 h), solvent free, and required 0.1 equivalent of base. Aiming to reach greener conditions, classical bases were then replaced using new bio-sourced bases, called Eco-bases, that were easily prepared from plants and led to heterogeneous catalysts. The composition and structure of Eco-bases were characterized by MP-AES, XRPD, EBSD/EDS, HRTEM/EDX and ion chromatography. Interestingly, a high ratio of potassium was observed with the presence of K2Ca(CO3)2 for the most effective Eco-base. The new Eco-bases were used for the mechanical-assisted construction of functionalized alkenone derivatives. The versatility of the method has been successfully applied with good to excellent yields to different Michael donors and acceptors. Eco-bases were recycled and reused four times with the same performances. Combining Eco-bases and mechanochemistry in Michael addition reactions allowed reaching a maximum degree of sustainability (efficient, rapid, low catalyst loading, solvent-free reactions with bio-sourced catalysts) and participating in the development of mechanochemistry in sustainable chemistry.

PMID:35630783 | PMC:PMC9144101 | DOI:10.3390/molecules27103306


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