MHD darcy-forchheimer nanofluid flow and entropy optimization in an odd-shaped enclosure filled with a (MWCNT-Fe3O4/water) using galerkin finite element analysis

Sci Rep. 2021 Nov 22;11(1):22635. doi: 10.1038/s41598-021-02047-y.

ABSTRACT

MHD nanoliquid convective flow in an odd-shaped cavity filled with a multi-walled carbon nanotube-iron (II, III) oxide (MWCNT-Fe3O4) hybrid nanofluid is reported. The side walls are adiabatic, and the internal and external borders of the cavity are isothermally kept at high and low temperatures of Th and Tc, respectively. The governing equations obtained with the Boussinesq approximation are solved using Galerkin Finite Element Method (GFEM). Impact of Darcy number (Da), Hartmann number (Ha), Rayleigh number (Ra), solid volume fraction (ϕ), and Heated-wall length effect are presented. Outputs are illustrated in forms of streamlines, isotherms, and Nusselt number. The impact of multiple parameters namely Rayleigh number, Darcy number, on entropy generation rate was analyzed and discussed in post-processing under laminar and turbulent flow regimes.

PMID:34811402 | DOI:10.1038/s41598-021-02047-y

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