Microbial-Derived Polyhydroxyalkanoate-Based Scaffolds for Bone Tissue Engineering: Biosynthesis, Properties, and Perspectives

Front Bioeng Biotechnol. 2021 Dec 21;9:763031. doi: 10.3389/fbioe.2021.763031. eCollection 2021.

ABSTRACT

Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are a class of structurally diverse natural biopolyesters, synthesized by various microbes under unbalanced culture conditions. PHAs as biomedical materials have been fabricated in various forms to apply to tissue engineering for the past years due to their excellent biodegradability, inherent biocompatibility, modifiable mechanical properties, and thermo-processability. However, there remain some bottlenecks in terms of PHA production on a large scale, the purification process, mechanical properties, and biodegradability of PHA, which need to be further resolved. Therefore, scientists are making great efforts via synthetic biology and metabolic engineering tools to improve the properties and the product yields of PHA at a lower cost for the development of various PHA-based scaffold fabrication technologies to widen biomedical applications, especially in bone tissue engineering. This review aims to outline the biosynthesis, structures, properties, and the bone tissue engineering applications of PHA scaffolds with different manufacturing technologies. The latest advances will provide an insight into future outlooks in PHA-based scaffolds for bone tissue engineering.

PMID:34993185 | PMC:PMC8724543 | DOI:10.3389/fbioe.2021.763031

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