Clin Surg J. 2022;3(3):INF1000213. Epub 2022 Aug 23.
Vasospasm is a potentially severe complication of subarachnoid hemorrhage. It can be attributed to neuroinflammation and the robust recruitment of microglia. Emerging evidence has linked this sustained inflammation to the development of delayed cerebral ischemia following subarachnoid hemorrhage. In this focused review, we provide an overview of the historical understanding of vasospasm. We then delve into the role of neuroinflammation and the activation of microglia. These activated microglia releases a host of inflammatory cytokines contributing to an influx of peripheral macrophages. This thereby opens a new and innovative treatment strategy to prevent vasospasm. Pre-clinical work has been promising, and the transition to clinical trials is warranted. Finally, some of the key mechanistic targets are outlined with emphasis on translation. This review will serve as a catalyst for researchers and clinicians alike in the quest to improve treatment options for vasospasm.