Mater Today Bio. 2022 Dec 28;18:100536. doi: 10.1016/j.mtbio.2022.100536. eCollection 2023 Feb.
The abundant neurovascular network in the periosteal fibrous layer is essential for regulating bone homeostasis and repairing bone defects. However, the majority of the current studies only focus on the structure or function, and most of them merely involve osteogenesis and angiogenesis, lacking an in-depth study of periosteal neurogenesis. In this study, a photothermal double-layer biomimetic periosteum with neurovascular coupling was proposed. The outer layer of biomimetic periosteum is a conventional electrospinning membrane to prevent soft tissue invasion, and the inner layer is an oriented nanofiber membrane to promote cell recruitment and angiogenesis. From the perspective of functional bionics, based on the whitlockite (WH) similar to bone composition, we doped Nd (the trivalent form of neodymium element) in it as the inducing element of photothermal response to prepare photothermal whitlockite (Nd@WH). The sustained release of Mg2+ in Nd@WH can effectively promote the up-regulation of nerve growth factor (NGF) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). The release of Ca2+ and PO4 3- ions and photothermal osteogenesis jointly promote bone regeneration. Under the combined effect of structure and function, the formation of nerves, blood vessels, and related collagens greatly simulates the microenvironment of extracellular matrix and periosteum regeneration and ultimately promotes bone regeneration. In this study, physical and chemical characterization proved that the bionic periosteum has good flexibility and operability. The in vitro cell experiment and in vivo calvarial defect model verified that PPCL/Nd@WH biomimetic periosteum had excellent bone tissue regeneration function compared with other groups. Finally, PPCL/Nd@WH provides a new idea for the design of bionic periosteum.