Mitigation of SARS-CoV-2 by Using Transition Metal Nanozeolites and Quaternary Ammonium Compounds as Antiviral Agents in Suspensions and Soft Fabric Materials

Int J Nanomedicine. 2023 May 3;18:2307-2324. doi: 10.2147/IJN.S396669. eCollection 2023.


INTRODUCTION: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has demonstrated the need for novel, affordable, and efficient reagents to help reduce viral transmission, especially in high-risk environments including medical treatment facilities, close quarters, and austere settings. We examined transition-metal nanozeolite suspensions and quaternary ammonium compounds as an antiviral surface coating for various textile materials.

METHODS: Zeolites are crystalline porous aluminosilicate materials, with the ability of ion-exchanging different cations. Nanozeolites (30 nm) were synthesized and then ion-exchanged with silver, zinc and copper ions. Benzalkonium nitrate (BZN) was examined as the quaternary ammonium ion (quat). Suspensions of these materials were tested for antiviral activity towards SARS-CoV-2 using plaque assay and immunostaining. Suspensions of the nanozeolite and quat were deposited on polyester and cotton fabrics and the ability of these textiles towards neutralizing SARS-CoV-2 was examined.

RESULTS: We hypothesized that transition metal ion containing zeolites, particularly silver and zinc (AM30) and silver and copper (AV30), would be effective in reducing the infectivity of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Additionally, AM30 and AV30 antiviral potency was tested when combined with a quaternary ammonium carrier, BZN. Our results indicate that exposure of SARS-CoV-2 to AM30 and/or AV30 suspensions reduced viral loads with time and exhibited dose-dependence. Antiviral activities of the combination of zeolite and BZN compositions were significantly enhanced. When used in textiles, AM30 and AV30-coated cotton and polyester fabrics alone or in combination with BZN exhibited significant antiviral properties, which were maintained even after various stress tests, including washes, SARS-CoV-2-repeated exposures, or treatments with soil-like materials.

CONCLUSION: This study shows the efficacy of transition metal nanozeolite formulations as novel antiviral agents and establishes that nanozeolite with silver and zinc ions (AM30) and nanozeolite with silver and copper ions (AV30) when combined with benzalkonium nitrate (BZN) quickly and continuously inactivate SARS-CoV-2 in suspension and on fabric materials.

PMID:37163142 | PMC:PMC10164392 | DOI:10.2147/IJN.S396669


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