Mixed Contaminants: Occurrence, Interactions, Toxicity, Detection, and Remediation

Molecules. 2022 Apr 16;27(8):2577. doi: 10.3390/molecules27082577.


The ever-increasing rate of pollution has attracted considerable interest in research. Several anthropogenic activities have diminished soil, air, and water quality and have led to complex chemical pollutants. This review aims to provide a clear idea about the latest and most prevalent pollutants such as heavy metals, PAHs, pesticides, hydrocarbons, and pharmaceuticals-their occurrence in various complex mixtures and how several environmental factors influence their interaction. The mechanism adopted by these contaminants to form the complex mixtures leading to the rise of a new class of contaminants, and thus resulting in severe threats to human health and the environment, has also been exhibited. Additionally, this review provides an in-depth idea of various in vivo, in vitro, and trending biomarkers used for risk assessment and identifies the occurrence of mixed contaminants even at very minute concentrations. Much importance has been given to remediation technologies to understand our current position in handling these contaminants and how the technologies can be improved. This paper aims to create awareness among readers about the most ubiquitous contaminants and how simple ways can be adopted to tackle the same.

PMID:35458775 | PMC:PMC9029723 | DOI:10.3390/molecules27082577


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