Sci Rep. 2023 Sep 11;13(1):14970. doi: 10.1038/s41598-023-42179-x.
Both culture-independent and culture-dependent analyses using Nanopore-based 16S rRNA sequencing showed that short-term exposure of Antarctic soils to low temperature increased biomass with lower bacterial diversity and maintained high numbers of the phylum Proteobacteria, Firmicute, and Actinobacteria including Pseudarthrobacter species. The psychrophilic Pseudarthrobacter psychrotolerans YJ56 had superior growth at 13 °C, but could not grow at 30 °C, compared to other bacteria isolated from the same Antarctic soil. Unlike a single rod-shaped cell at 13 °C, strain YJ56 at 25 °C was morphologically shifted into a filamentous bacterium with several branches. Comparative genomics of strain YJ56 with other genera in the phylum Actinobacteria indicate remarkable copy numbers of rimJ genes that are possibly involved in dual functions, acetylation of ribosomal proteins, and stabilization of ribosomes by direct binding. Our proteomic data suggested that Actinobacteria cells experienced physiological stresses at 25 °C, showing the upregulation of chaperone proteins, GroEL and catalase, KatE. Level of proteins involved in the assembly of 50S ribosomal proteins and L29 in 50S ribosomal proteins increased at 13 °C, which suggested distinct roles of many ribosomal proteins under different conditions. Taken together, our data highlights the cellular filamentation and protein homeostasis of a psychrophilic YJ56 strain in coping with high-temperature stress.