The study analyzed the content and localization of phenolic compounds, in particular phenylpropanoids, of Rodiola rosea plants of Altai Mountains ecotype during the introduction period of 2-4 years in the conditions of the forest-steppe zone of Western Siberia. The plant material for the introduction experiment was obtained by in vitro method. HPLC was used to identify 11 phenolic compounds, including gallic acid, rosarin, rosavin, rosin, cinnamyl alcohol, rhodiosin, rhodionin, and kaempferol. The highest content of phenylpropenoids was found in rhizomes of the 4-year-old R. rosea plants: 1.02% rosarin, 2.64% rosavin, 1.05% rosin, 3.39% cinnamyl alcohol. Analysis of the phenylpropanoid profile showed that the predominant component in all the studied samples was cinnamyl alcohol (up to 58%). Histochemical studies identified phenolic substances in the rhizomes and roots of R. rosea, which are localized in parenchymal and vascular tissues. It was revealed that the total rhizome biomass exceeded that of the root, and by the 4th year of introduction, it was approximately 2-fold greater in dry weight. The study showed high biosynthetic potential and biological productivity of the studied R. rosea ecotype upon introduction.