Infect Drug Resist. 2022 Sep 2;15:5137-5148. doi: 10.2147/IDR.S379212. eCollection 2022.
BACKGROUND: blaNDM-1-producing Acinetobacter baumannii (BP-AB) remains a critical problem in nosocomial infections, because of its resistance mediated by the biofilm formation and virulence factors. No studies have confirmed myrtenol’s efficacy in inhibiting the biofilm formation and virulence associated with biofilm of BP-AB.
METHODS: The tested concentrations of myrtenol were wild type (A), 50 μg/mL (B), 100 μg/mL (C), 200 μg/mL (D), 250 μg/mL (E), and 300 μg/mL (F).
RESULTS: The BP-AB biofilm inhibition was significantly higher in the D, E, and F groups than in the A, B, and C groups. Myrtenol significantly reduced the air-liquid interface ring formation in glass tubes. It also effectively inhibited the attachment of BP-AB strains on polystyrene surfaces as shown by crystal violet staining. Microscopy showed a significant reduction in biofilm formation with dispersed BP-AB strains. The confocal laser scanning microscopy analysis showed a significant reduction in the biofilm’s biomass, covered surface area, and thickness. The scanning electron microscopy analysis revealed significantly fewer BP-AB aggregates on the coverslip surface. In the CompStat analysis, the biofilm’s biomass, maximum thickness, and surface-to-volume ratio were significantly reduced. The qPCR analysis revealed a significant down-regulation of bfmR, bap, csuA/B, and ompA expression, which positively correlated with the biofilm’s biomass, maximum thickness, and surface-to-volume ratio in BP-AB strains. Myrtenol significantly improved the susceptibility of BP-AB to the antibiotics amikacin, piperacillin/tazobactam, cefoperazone/sulbactam, and ceftazidime.
CONCLUSION: Myrtenol attenuates the BP-AB biofilm formation and virulence by suppressing the expression of bfmR, bap, csuA/B, and ompA.