Biomed Mater Devices. 2022 Nov 16:1-16. doi: 10.1007/s44174-022-00050-z. Online ahead of print.
Biosensors are analytical tools that enable the transmission of different signals produced from the target analyte to a transducer for the production of real-time clinical diagnostic devices by obtaining meaningful results. Recent research demonstrates that the production of structured nanofiber through various methods has come to light as a potential platform for enhancing the functionality of biosensing devices. The general trend is towards the use of nanofibers for electrochemical biosensors. However, optical and mechanical biosensors are being developed by functionalization of nanofibers. Such nanofibers exhibit a high surface area to volume ratio, surface porosity, electroconductivity and variable morphology. In addition, nanosized structures have shown to be effective as membranes for immobilizing bioanalytes, offering physiologically active molecules a favorable microenvironment that improves the efficiency of biosensing. Cost effective, wearable biosensors are crucial for point of care diagnostics. This review aims to examine the electrically conductive materials, potential forming methods, and wide-ranging applications of nanofiber-based biosensing platforms, with an emphasis on transducers incorporating mechanical, electrochemical and optical and bioreceptors involving cancer biomarker, urea, DNA, microorganisms, primarily in the last decade. The appealing properties of nanofibers mats and the attributes of the biorecognition components are also stated and explored. Finally, consideration is given to the difficulties now affecting the design of nanofiber-based biosensing platforms as well as their future potential.