ACS Omega. 2022 Dec 10;7(50):45962-45980. doi: 10.1021/acsomega.2c06211. eCollection 2022 Dec 20.
Recently, the upsurge in hospital-acquired diseases has put global health at risk. Biomedical implants being the primary source of contamination, the development of biomedical implants with antimicrobial coatings has attracted the attention of a large group of researchers from around the globe. Bacteria develops biofilms on the surface of implants, making it challenging to eradicate them with the standard approach of administering antibiotics. A further issue of current concern is the fast resurgence of resistance to conventional antibiotics. As nanotechnology continues to advance, various types of nanomaterials have been created, including 2D nanoparticles and metal and metal oxide nanoparticles with antimicrobial properties. Researchers from all over the world are using these materials as a coating agent for biomedical implants to create an antimicrobial environment. This comprehensive and contemporary review summarizes various metals, metal oxide nanoparticles, 2D nanomaterials, and their composites that have been used or may be used in the future as an antimicrobial coating agent for biomedical implants, as well as their succinct mode of action to combat biofilm-associated infection and diseases.