Top Catal. 2022 Dec 29:1-16. doi: 10.1007/s11244-022-01766-4. Online ahead of print.
Nanomaterials possess superior advantages due to their special geometries, higher surface area, and unique mechanical, optical, and physicochemical properties. Their characteristics make them great contributors to the development of many technological and industrial sectors. Therefore, novel nanomaterials have an increasing interest in many research areas including biomedicine such as chronic inflammations, disease detection, drug delivery, and infections treatment. Their relevant role is, in many cases, associated with an effective catalytic application, either as a pure catalyst (acting as a nanozyme) or as a support for catalytically active materials (forming nanobiocatalysts). In this review, we analyze the construction of nanozymes and nanobiocatalyst by different existing forms of nanomaterials including carbon-based nanomaterials, metal-based nanomaterials, and polymer-based nanocomposites. Then, we examine successful examples of such nanomaterials employed in biomedical research. The role played by nanomaterials in catalytic applications is analyzed to identify possible research directions toward the development of the field and the achievement of real practicability.