Bioeng Transl Med. 2022 Dec 15;8(5):e10470. doi: 10.1002/btm2.10470. eCollection 2023 Sep.
Indocyanine green (ICG), glucose oxidase (GOx), and copper(II) sulfate (Cu)-installed hybrid gel based on organic nanorod (cellulose nanocrystal [CNC]) and inorganic nanodisk (Laponite [LAP]) was developed to perform a combination of starvation therapy (ST), chemodynamic therapy (CDT), and photothermal therapy (PTT) for localized cancers. A hybrid CNC/LAP network with a nematic phase was designed to enable instant gelation, controlled viscoelasticity, syringe injectability, and longer in vivo retention. Moreover, ICG was introduced into the CNC/LAP gel system to induce hyperthermia of tumor tissue, amplifying the CDT effect; GOx was used for glucose deprivation (related to the Warburg effect); and Cu was introduced for hydroxyl radical generation (based on Fenton-like chemistry) and cellular glutathione (GSH) degradation in cancer cells. The ICG/GOx/Cu-installed CNC/LAP gel in combination with near-infrared (NIR) laser realized improved antiproliferation, cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, cellular GSH degradation, and apoptosis induction in colorectal cancer (CT-26) cells. In addition, local injection of the CNC/ICG/GOx/Cu/LAP gel into the implanted CT-26 tumor while irradiating it with NIR laser provided strong tumor growth suppression effects. In conclusion, the designed hybrid nanorod/nanodisk gel network can be efficiently applied to the local PTT/ST/CDT of cancer cells.