The development of inherently safe energy devices is a key challenge, and aqueous Li-ion batteries draw large attention for this purpose. Due to the narrow electrochemical stable potential window of aqueous electrolytes, the energy density and the selection of negative electrode materials are significantly limited. For achieving durable and high-energy aqueous Li-ion batteries, the development of negative electrode materials exhibiting a large capacity and low potential without triggering decomposition of water is crucial. Herein, a type of a negative electrode material (i.e., Li x Nb2/7Mo3/7O2) is proposed for high-energy aqueous Li-ion batteries. Li x Nb2/7Mo3/7O2 delivers a large capacity of ∼170 mA ⋅ h ⋅ g-1 with a low operating potential range of 1.9 to 2.8 versus Li/Li+ in 21 m lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)amide (LiTFSA) aqueous electrolyte. A full cell consisting of Li1.05Mn1.95O4/Li9/7Nb2/7Mo3/7O2 presents high energy density of 107 W ⋅ h ⋅ kg-1 as the maximum value in 21 m LiTFSA aqueous electrolyte, and 73% in capacity retention is achieved after 2,000 cycles. Furthermore, hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy study reveals that a protective surface layer is formed at the surface of the negative electrode, by which the high-energy and durable aqueous batteries are realized with Li x Nb2/7Mo3/7O2 This work combines a high capacity with a safe negative electrode material through delivering the Mo-based oxide with unique nanosized and metastable characters.