Needle-free anesthesia: clinical efficacy of a mucoadhesive patch for atraumatic anesthesia in dental procedures

Braz Oral Res. 2021 Dec 17;35:e131. doi: 10.1590/1807-3107bor-2021.vol35.0131. eCollection 2021.

ABSTRACT

This study showcases the clinical efficacy of mucoadhesive patches designed for the buccal delivery of lidocaine and prilocaine hydrochlorides (1:1, 30 mg/patch). Such patches were developed for needle-free pre-operative local anesthesia in dentistry, aiming at mitigating the use of infiltrative anesthesia for medium-complexity clinical procedures. The patches were manufactured encompassing drug-release, mucoadhesive and backing layers, all prepared through film casting using biocompatible materials. Fifty-eight (n = 58) adult patients (65% women and 35% men) were randomly selected and included in a one-arm open clinical prospective cohort study. The average age of the subjects was of 50 years. The majority (59%) of the subjects, mostly women (82%), reported needle-phobia or anxiety due to dental procedures, which was assessed through a questionnaire approved by the ethical council for human use in research. The patches were positioned in the gingival region of the teeth involved in the procedure (86% on the maxillary and 14% on the mandibular bone). Two anesthetic patches were applied on each patient: one in the vestibular region and another in the palate/lingual portion, and these patches remained attached to the placement sites throughout the procedures. Concerning the dental procedures performed, 40% were cavity preparations and dental restorations of medium cavities; 29% staple facilities; 10% gingival retractions; 9% subgingival scrapings; 3% gingivalplasties; 3% supragingival preparations; 3% occlusal adjustments; and 2% subgingival preparations. In 90% of the cases, it was not necessary to complement with conventional infiltrative local anesthesia during the procedures. Patients did not report any discomfort or side effect during or after the administration of the patches. Among the cases in which there was the need for complementation, 50% were cavity preparations and dental restorations; 33% supragingival preparations; and 17% gingivoplasties. The complementary anesthesia volume was of 0.63 ± 0.23 mL and women corresponded to 83% of the participants who needed such intervention. Furthermore, in most cases, the patch was capable of initiating the anesthesia within a short time frame (5 minutes) and reaching the maximum anesthetic effect within 15 and 25 min, lasting at least 50 min. Undesirable side effects were not reported either 2 h after the administration or within the 6-month follow-up. Therefore, the anesthetic patches developed provide needle-free, painless, safe, and patient/dentist-friendly advances in performing routine medium-complexity dental procedures.

PMID:34932660 | DOI:10.1590/1807-3107bor-2021.vol35.0131

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