Front Oncol. 2023 Aug 17;13:1193736. doi: 10.3389/fonc.2023.1193736. eCollection 2023.
Prostate adenocarcinoma accounts for more than 20% of deaths among males due to cancer. It is the fifth-leading cancer diagnosed in males across the globe. The mortality rate is quite high due to prostate cancer. Despite the fact that advancements in diagnostics and therapeutics have been made, there is a lack of effective drugs. Metabolic pathways are altered due to the triggering of androgen receptor (AR) signaling pathways, and elevated levels of dihydrotestosterone are produced due to defects in AR signaling that accelerate the growth of prostate cancer cells. Further, PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathways interact with AR signaling pathway and act as precursors to promote prostate cancer. Prostate cancer therapy has been classified into luminal A, luminal B, and basal subtypes. Therapeutic drugs inhibiting dihydrotestosterone and PI3K have shown to give promising results to combat prostate cancer. Many second-generation Androgen receptor signaling antagonists are given either as single agent or with the combination of other drugs. In order to develop a cure for metastasized prostate cancer cells, Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) is applied by using surgical or chemical methods. In many cases, Prostatectomy or local radiotherapy are used to control metastasized prostate cancer. However, it has been observed that after 1.5 years to 2 years of Prostatectomy or castration, there is reoccurrence of prostate cancer and high incidence of castration resistant prostate cancer is seen in population undergone ADT. It has been observed that Androgen derivation therapy combined with drugs like abiraterone acetate or docetaxel improve overall survival rate in metastatic hormone sensitive prostate cancer (mHSPC) patients. Scientific investigations have revealed that drugs inhibiting poly ADP Ribose polymerase (PARP) are showing promising results in clinical trials in the prostate cancer population with mCRPC and DNA repair abnormalities. Recently, RISUG adv (reversible inhibition of sperm under guidance) has shown significant results against prostate cancer cell lines and MTT assay has validated substantial effects of this drug against PC3 cell lines. Current review paper highlights the advancements in prostate cancer therapeutics and new drug molecules against prostate cancer. It will provide detailed insights on the signaling pathways which need to be targeted to combat metastasized prostate cancer and castration resistant prostate cancer.