PURPOSE: We aimed to identify, verify, and validate a multiplex urinary biomarker-based prediction model for diagnosis and surveillance of urothelial carcinoma of bladder, using high-throughput proteomics methods.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Label-free quantification of data-dependent and data-independent acquisition of 12 and 24 individuals was performed in each of the discovery and verification phases using mass spectrometry, simultaneously using urinary exosome and proteins. Based on five scoring system based on proteomics data and statistical methods, we selected eight proteins. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay on urine from 120 patients with bladder mass lesions used for validation. Using multivariable logistic regression, we selected final candidate models for predicting bladder cancer.
RESULTS: Comparing the discovery and verification cohorts, 38% (50/132 exosomal differentially expressed proteins [DEPs]) and 44% (109/248 urinary DEPs) are consistent at statistically significance, respectively. The 20 out of 50 exosome proteins and 27 out of 109 urinary proteins were upregulated in cancer patients. From eight selected proteins, we developed two diagnostic models for bladder cancer. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) of two models were 0.845 and 0.842, which outperformed AUROC of urine cytology.
CONCLUSION: The results showed that the two diagnostic models developed here were more accurate than urine cytology. We successfully developed and validated a multiplex urinary protein-based prediction, which will have wide applications for the rapid diagnosis of urothelial carcinoma of the bladder. External validation for this biomarker panel in large population is required.