iScience. 2022 Jul 20;25(8):104807. doi: 10.1016/j.isci.2022.104807. eCollection 2022 Aug 19.
More than 20 million individuals worldwide suffer from congenital or acquired bone defects annually. The development of bone scaffold materials that simulate natural bone for bone defect repair remains challenging. Recently, ncRNA-based therapies for bone defects have attracted increasing interest because of the great potential of ncRNAs in disease treatment. Various types of ncRNAs regulate gene expression in osteogenesis-related cells via multiple mechanisms. The delivery of ncRNAs to the site of bone loss through gene vectors or scaffolds is a potential therapeutic option for bone defect repair. Therefore, this study discusses and summarizes the regulatory mechanisms of miRNAs, siRNAs, and piRNAs in osteogenic signaling and reviews the widely used current RNA delivery vectors and scaffolds for bone defect repair. Additionally, current challenges and potential solutions of delivery scaffolds for bone defect repair are proposed, with the aim of providing a theoretical basis for their future clinical applications.