Vavilovskii Zhurnal Genet Selektsii. 2022 Aug;26(5):467-476. doi: 10.18699/VJGB-22-57.
In this study, we present the first results on oxidation stress in Lake Baikal phytoplankton and its adaptation to environmental changes under anthropogenic impact. As was shown, the changing of the dominant species of phytoplankton collected from the surface water layer (~0.3 m) took place from February to June 2021. Phytoplankton were collected at a nearshore station (a littoral station at a distance of ~0.01 km from the shoreline, depth to bottom is ~5 m) and an offshore station (a pelagic station at a distance of ~1 km from the shoreline, depth to bottom is ~543 m). In February, dinoflagellates were dominant (~40 %) as well as diatoms (≤33 %) and green algae (≤12 %). Their biomass was 100 mg·m-3. In March, chrysophytes were dominant (up to 50 %) as well as cryptophytes (≤43 %) and dinoflagellates (≤30 %). Their biomass was 160-270 mg·m-3. In April, biomass increased up to 700-3100 mg·m-3 with the dominance of large cell dinoflagellates (up to 99 %), chrysophytes (up to 50 %), and cryptophytes (up to 35 %). By the end of the first decade of May, the percentage of dinoflagellates decreased and that of cryptophytes increased. In the second decade of May, the percentage of diatoms increased up to ~26-38 % but phytoplankton biomass was minimal (13-30 mg·m-3). By June, the percentage of diatoms in the samples reached 44-75 % at 60-550 mg·m-3. The oxidation stress of phytoplankton as a nonspecific adaptive response to a prolonged, intensive, or recurrent effect of a stress factor was estimated from the content of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). The mean content of these substances (markers of the lipid peroxidation) was determined spectrophotometrically. The oxidation stress of phytoplankton was revealed only when diatom algae dominated. It can be explained by adaptation of algae of other classes to the stress factor. The content of the lipid peroxidation markers in the coastal phytoplankton collected close to the settlement of Listvyanka known as a large touristic center was estimated from 100 to 500 μg·g-1 of dry weight of sample. During the period of diatom blooming in 2016 and 2018, oxidation stress of phytoplankton collected near large settlements was found. In phytoplankton from deep-water pelagic stations most remote from settlements, stress was not revealed. Using the method of gas chromatography, we showed a lower (up to 15 %) content of polyunsaturated fatty acids in phytoplankton characterized by stress occurrence. This confirms cell membrane damages. In Lake Baikal surface water, we found a higher content of synthetic anionic surfactants (sodium alkylbenzene sulfonates), which are components of detergents and cause oxidation stress of hydrobionts (up to 30 ± 4 μg·L-1). The presence of these substances in a water ecosystem can result in exhausting of phytoplankton cell resources, homeostasis imbalance, stress, pathological changes, and rearrangements in phytoplankton assemblage.