J Nanobiotechnology. 2023 Aug 8;21(1):260. doi: 10.1186/s12951-023-02018-7.
Thrombotic vascular disorders, specifically thromboembolisms, have a significant detrimental effect on public health. Despite the numerous thrombolytic and antithrombotic drugs available, their efficacy in penetrating thrombus formations is limited, and they carry a high risk of promoting bleeding. Consequently, the current medication dosage protocols are inadequate for preventing thrombus formation, and higher doses are necessary to achieve sufficient prevention. By integrating phototherapy with antithrombotic therapy, this study addresses difficulties related to thrombus-targeted drug delivery. We developed self-assembling nanoparticles (NPs) through the optimization of a co-assembly engineering process. These NPs, called DIP-FU-PPy NPs, consist of polypyrrole (PPy), dipyridamole (DIP), and P-selectin-targeted fucoidan (FU) and are designed to be delivered directly to thrombi. DIP-FU-PPy NPs are proposed to offer various potentials, encompassing drug-loading capability, targeted accumulation in thrombus sites, near-infrared (NIR) photothermal-enhanced thrombus management with therapeutic efficacy, and prevention of rethrombosis. As predicted, DIP-FU-PPy NPs prevented thrombus recurrence and emitted visible fluorescence signals during thrombus clot penetration with no adverse effects. Our co-delivery nano-platform is a simple and versatile solution for NIR-phototherapeutic multimodal thrombus control.