Sci Rep. 2023 Apr 15;13(1):6152. doi: 10.1038/s41598-023-32902-z.
In this research article, the behavior of 2D non-Newtonian Sutterby nanofluid flow over the parabolic surface is discussed. In boundary region of surface buoyancy-driven flow occurred due to considerable temperature differences produced by the reaction happen between Sutterby nanofluid and catalyst at the surface. Free convection which is sighted easily on the parabolic surface is initiated by reaction on the catalyst surface modeled the 1st order activation energy. Applications of parabolic surfaces are upper cover of bullet, car bonnet, and air crafts. Under discussion flow is modelled mathematically by implementing law of conservation of microorganism’s concentration, momentum, mass and heat. The governing equations of the system is of the form of non-linear PDE’s. By the use of similarity transform, the governing PDE`s transformed as non-dimensional ODE’s. The resultant system of non-dimensional ODE’s are numerically solved by built-in function MATLAB package named as ‘bvp4c’. Graphical representation shows the influence of different parameters in the concentration, velocity, microorganisms and temperature profiles of the system. In temperature profile, we examined the impact of thermophoresis coefficient Nt (0.1, 0.5, 1.0), Prandtl number Pr (2.0, 3.0, 4.0), and Brownian motion variable Nb (0.1, 0.3, 0.5). Velocity profile depends on the non-dimensional parameters i.e. (Deborah number De & Hartmann number Ha) and found that these numbers (De, Ha) cause downfall in profile. Furthermore, mass transfer, skin friction, and heat transfer rates are numerically computed. The purpose of the study is to enumerate the significance of parabolic surfaces for the transport of heat and mass through the flow of bio-convective Sutterby nanofluid.
PMID:37061555 | PMC:PMC10105749 | DOI:10.1038/s41598-023-32902-z