Heliyon. 2022 Nov 14;8(11):e11639. doi: 10.1016/j.heliyon.2022.e11639. eCollection 2022 Nov.
Diesel engines are widely used due to their higher thermal efficiency and lower Hydrocarbon (HC) emissions. The price fluctuation of petroleum fuel; the none-renewability and different hazardous emissions from petro-diesel, researchers are searching for a suitable renewable energy source for diesel engine. Ethanol is one of the promising alternative fuels that could be used to power diesel engine. Some of the techniques so far tried are ethanol fumigation, dual injection and blending. The former techniques need different engine modification to enable the additional systems to work on the existing engines. Blending is the best technique to substitute the existing diesel fuel as long as we prepare it as per the current diesel fuel minimum requirement. For this specific case micro emulsion of ethanol in diesel fuel with emulsifier is prepared by using magnetic stirrer and bath type ultrasonicator. Nickel Zinc Iron Oxide (NiZnFe2O4) nanoparticle is added in one of the selected emulsion which is having 10% ethanol in three different dose as additive to see the effect on the performance and emission variation of the emulsion compared with diesel fuel. The performance of the prepared sample fuels are tested on a test rig with single cylinder diesel engine. The emission is measured by using exhaust gas analyzer and smoke opacity meter. The specific fuel consumption, brake torque and brake power of E5 (95% diesel and 5% ethanol), E10 (90% diesel and 10% ethanol) and E15 (85% diesel and 15% ethanol) are evaluated and the result showed 27, 34 and 37% increment in fuel consumption; 15, 5 and 15% reduction in brake torque and the power reduction is 19, 7 and 12% respectively. E10 is selected for further test with addition of the nanoparticle with 25, 50 and 100ppm named as E103N25 (E10 with 25ppm NiZnFe2O4 nanoparticle), E103N50 (E10 with 50ppm NiZnFe2O4 nanoparticle) and E102N100 (E10 with 100 ppm NiZnFe2O4 nanoparticle). The result showed fuel consumption reduction by 16, 27 and 27% torque output increment of 1, 2 and 2% and power output increment of 5, 7 and 7% respectively compared with E10. The emission result revealed that the HC emission reduced by 50, 58 and 71% for E103N25, E103N50 and E103N100 fuel samples respectively, Carbon monoxide (CO) emission reduced by 67, 80 and 81% for E103N25, E103N50 and E103N100 fuel samples respectively. The reduction in smoke emission is reduced by 60, 69 and 61% for E103N25, E103N50 and E103N100 fuel samples respectively. Nitrogen oxide (NOX) and Carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions increased with the amount of nanoparticle added in to the fuel.