Phenol-Furfural Resin/Graphite/Ag-Based Electrically Conductive Adhesive Composites from Waste Bagasse with Enhanced Thermo-Electric Properties

Polymers (Basel). 2023 Aug 3;15(15):3283. doi: 10.3390/polym15153283.


This study describes the preparation and evaluation of phenol-furfural resin (PFR) from bagasse and its nanocomposites for electrically conductive adhesive (ECA) application. PFR was prepared with furfural extracted from bagasse using a modified acid digestion method. Three different formulations of PFR nanocomposites with conductive nanoparticles, i.e., PFR-silver, PFR-graphite, and PFR-silver + graphite, were prepared using 20, 40, and 60 w/w% of fillers via the impregnation method. The resultant products were characterized using FT-IR, SEM, EDS, and XRD spectroscopy. Electrical conductivity was measured using a four-probe technique, while band gap was calculated via Tauc plots. The results exhibited a significant rise in electrical conductivity of insulating virgin PFR from 2.6 × 10-4 Scm-1 to 8.2 × 10-1 Scm-1 with a 40 and 20 w/w% blend of Ag and graphite in PFR. This synergism was exhibited because graphite and Ag NPs supply excellent junctions for building networks. Both tend to coalesce due to van der Waals forces and high surface energies. Therefore, conductive pathway numbers can be increased, and the contact area can be effectively enlarged. This ternary composite exhibited the lowest bandgap energy value, i.e., 3.1 eV. Thermogravimetric temperature values T0 and Tdeg were increased up to 120 °C and 484 °C, respectively, showing a significant increase in thermal stability. Therefore, the resultant nanocomposite material has good potential to be employed as an ECA in the electronic industry.

PMID:37571177 | PMC:PMC10422539 | DOI:10.3390/polym15153283


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