Saudi Pharm J. 2023 Sep;31(9):101731. doi: 10.1016/j.jsps.2023.101731. Epub 2023 Aug 5.
This study aimed to investigate the phytochemical composition and biological activity of Salsola tetragona Delile. (Amaranthaceae), a medicinal plant. The study evaluated the antioxidant potential of the crude extract and five fractions of S. tetragona using DPPH•, ABTS•+, CUPRAC, and metal chelating assays. The anti-inflammatory activity was determined using a protein denaturation assay, and the antibacterial activity was determined by the Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) for the growth of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus strains. The MTT test and an in vitro scratch assay evaluated the effects on cell viability and cell migration. The potential anti-SARS-CoV-2 activity was assessed by analyzing the effects on the interaction between ACE2 and Spike protein. The bioactive compounds present in the plant were identified using LC-HR/MS analysis. The crude hydromethanolic extract (STM) and five fractions of S. tetragona, n-hexane (STH), dichloromethane (STD), ethyl acetate (STE), n-butanol (STB), and aqueous (STW) showed significant antioxidant activity in four different tests. In the anti-inflammatory assay, the ethyl acetate fraction exhibited significantly higher activity than Aspirin® (IC50 = 13 ± 5 µg/mL). The crude extract and its fractions showed positive antibacterial activity with similar MICs. In the cytotoxicity assay against the breast cancer cell line MCF7, the dichloromethane fractions (STD) were very effective and demonstrated superiority over the other fractions (IC50 = 98 µg/mL). Moreover, the potential of the extract and fractions as anti-SARS-CoV-2, the ethyl acetate, and dichloromethane fractions demonstrated important activity in this test. LC-HR/MS analysis identified 16 different phenolic compounds, Eleven of which had not been previously reported in the genus Salsola. The results suggest that the extracts of S. tetragona have the potential to become new sources for developing plant-based therapies for managing a range of diseases.