Thymus broussonetii Boiss (T. broussonetii) is a rare medicinal and aromatic plant. It is widely used in traditional medicine to treat several diseases, including diarrhea, fever, cough, irritation, skin diseases, rheumatism, respiratory ailments, influenza, and digestion problems. In this review, we have critically summarized previous data on T. broussonetii about its phytochemistry, botanical and geographical distribution, toxicological investigation, and pharmacological properties. Using scientific research databases such as Wiley Online, SciFinder, ScienceDirect, PubMed, SpringerLink, Web of Science, Scopus Wiley Online, and Google Scholar, the data on T. broussonetii were collected and discussed. The presented data regrouped bioactive compounds and biological activities of T. broussonetii. The findings of this work showed that essential oils and extracts of T. broussonetii exhibited numerous pharmacological activities (in vitro and in vivo), particularly antibacterial, antifungal, antioxidant, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, insecticidal, antipyretic, antinociceptive, and immunological and behavioral effects. While toxicological studies of T. broussonetii essential oils and extracts are lacking, modern scientific tools revealed the presence of different classes of secondary metabolites such as terpenoids, alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, coumarins, quinones, carotenoids, and steroids. T. broussonetii essential oils, especially from the aerial parts, exhibited potent antibacterial, antifungal, and antioxidant effects. An in-depth toxicological investigation is needed to validate the efficacy and safety of T. broussonetii extracts and essential oils and their secondary metabolites. However, further pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic studies should be performed to validate its bioavailability.