J Adv Vet Anim Res. 2022 Jun 26;9(2):230-240. doi: 10.5455/javar.2022.i588. eCollection 2022 Jun.
OBJECTIVE: Despite the development of several vaccines against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2, the need for an additional prophylactic agent is evident. In recent in silico studies, isovitexin exhibited a higher binding affinity against the human angiotensin converting-enzyme 2 (hACE2) receptor than existing antiviral drugs. The research aimed to find out the point specificity of isovitexin for the hACE2 receptor and to assess its therapeutic potential, depending on the stability of the isovitexin-hACE2 complex.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The pharmacokinetic profile of isovitexin was analyzed. The crystal structure of the hACE2 receptor and the ligand isovitexin were docked to form a ligand-protein complex following molecular optimization. To determine the isovitexin-hACE2 complex stability, their binding affinity, hydrogen bonding, and hydrophobic interactions were studied. Lastly, the root mean square deviation (RMSD), root mean square fluctuation, solvent accessible surface area, molecular surface area, radius of gyration (Rg), polar surface area, and principal component analysis values were found by simulating the complex with molecular dynamic (MD).
RESULTS: The predicted Lethal dose50 for isovitexin was 2.56 mol/kg, with an acceptable maximum tolerated dose and no hepatotoxicity or AMES toxicity. Interactions with the amino acid residues Thr371, Asp367, Glu406, Pro346, His345, Phe274, Tyr515, Glu375, Thr347, Glu402, and His374 of the hACE2 protein were required for the high binding affinity and specificity of isovitexin. Based on what was learned from the MD simulation, the hACE2 receptor-blocking properties of isovitexin were looked at.
CONCLUSIONS: Isovitexin is a phytochemical with a reasonable bioactivity and safety profile for use in humans, and it can potentially be used as a hACE2-specific therapeutic to inhibit COVID-19 infection.