Discov Nano. 2023 Sep 15;18(1):114. doi: 10.1186/s11671-023-03897-3.
Nanocarrier systems are widely used for drug delivery applications, but limitations such as the use of synthetic surfactants, leakage of toxic drugs, and a poor encapsulation capacity remain as challenges. We present a new hybrid nanocarrier system that utilizes natural materials to overcome these limitations and improve the safety and efficacy of drug delivery. The system comprises a biopolymeric shell and a lipid core, encapsulating the lipophilic anticancer drug paclitaxel. Bovine serum albumin and dextran, in various molecular weights, are covalently conjugated via Maillard reaction to form the shell which serves as a stabilizer to maintain nanoparticle integrity. The properties of the system, such as Maillard conjugate concentration, protein/polysaccharide molar ratio, and polysaccharide molecular weight, are optimized to enhance nanoparticle size and stability. The system shows high stability at different pH conditions, high drug loading capacity, and effective in vitro drug release through the trigger of enzymes and passive diffusion. Serine proteases are used to digest the protein portion of the nanoparticle shell to enhance the drug release. This nanocarrier system represents a significant advancement in the field of nanomedicine, offering a safe and effective alternative for the delivery of lipophilic drugs.