Preparation and characterization of doped hollow carbon spherical nanostructures with nickel and cobalt metals and their catalysis for the green synthesis of pyridopyrimidines

RSC Adv. 2023 Jan 25;13(6):3623-3634. doi: 10.1039/d2ra07152e. eCollection 2023 Jan 24.


Fused heterocyclic systems containing the pyrimidine ring structure perform a significant role in numerous biological and pharmaceutical processes. Their properties include antibacterial, antifungal, anti-fever, anti-tumor, and antihistamine. As pyridopyrimidines are important in the essential fields of pharmaceutical chemistry, efficient methods for preparing these heterocycles are presented. In this study, a method for producing improved hollow carbon sphere nanostructures with cobalt and nickel (Co-Ni@HCSs) is presented. The nanocatalyst was prepared and identified by applying Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET), and elemental mapping techniques. The Co-Ni@HCSs nanocatalyst was proved to be highly efficient in synthesizing pyranopyrimidine derivatives. The sizeable active site, economic catalyst loading, easy workup, reusability, green reaction conditions, and excellent yields of all derivatives are some of the significant features of this process. Also, applying response surface methodology (RSM) and the Box-Behnken design (BBD) techniques allowed us to determine the influential factors of the laboratory variables and identify the optimum conditions for superior catalytic activity. Finally, synthesized organic compounds were identified by utilizing melting point, FT-IR, and hydrogen-1 nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR) analyses.

PMID:36756581 | PMC:PMC9891082 | DOI:10.1039/d2ra07152e


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