J Nanobiotechnology. 2023 Aug 17;21(1):270. doi: 10.1186/s12951-023-02041-8.
BACKGROUND: Implant infections caused by biofilm forming bacteria are a major threat in orthopedic surgery. Delivering antibiotics directly to an implant affected by a bacterial biofilm via superparamagnetic nanoporous silica nanoparticles could present a promising approach. Nevertheless, short blood circulation half-life because of rapid interactions of nanoparticles with the host’s immune system hinder them from being clinically used. The aim of this study was to determine the temporal in vivo resolution of magnetic nanoporous silica nanoparticle (MNPSNP) distribution and the effect of PEGylation and clodronate application using PET/CT imaging and gamma counting in an implant mouse model.
METHODS: PEGylated and non-PEGylated MNPSNPs were radiolabeled with gallium-68 (68Ga), implementing the chelator tris(hydroxypyridinone). 36 mice were included in the study, 24 mice received a magnetic implant subcutaneously on the left and a titanium implant on the right hind leg. MNPSNP pharmacokinetics and implant accumulation was analyzed in dependence on PEGylation and additional clodronate application. Subsequently gamma counting was performed for further final analysis.
RESULTS: The pharmacokinetics and biodistribution of all radiolabeled nanoparticles could clearly be visualized and followed by dynamic PET/CT imaging. Both variants of 68Ga-labeled MNPSNP accumulated mainly in liver and spleen. PEGylation of the nanoparticles already resulted in lower liver uptakes. Combination with macrophage depletion led to a highly significant effect whereas macrophage depletion alone could not reveal significant differences. Although MNPSNP accumulation around implants was low in comparison to the inner organs in PET/CT imaging, gamma counting displayed a significantly higher %I.D./g for the tissue surrounding the magnetic implants compared to the titanium control. Additional PEGylation and/or macrophage depletion revealed no significant differences regarding nanoparticle accumulation at the implantation site.
CONCLUSION: Tracking of 68Ga-labeled nanoparticles in a mouse model in the first critical hours post-injection by PET/CT imaging provided a better understanding of MNPSNP distribution, elimination and accumulation. Although PEGylation increases circulation time, nanoparticle accumulation at the implantation site was still insufficient for infection treatment and additional efforts are needed to increase local accumulation.