Preparation, properties and antibacterial applications of medical nano-metals and their oxides: a review

Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao. 2023 Apr 25;39(4):1462-1476. doi: 10.13345/j.cjb.220536.


Antibiotics are playing an increasingly important role in clinical antibacterial applications. However, their abuse has also brought toxic and side effects, drug-resistant pathogens, decreased immunity and other problems. New antibacterial schemes in clinic are urgently needed. In recent years, nano-metals and their oxides have attracted wide attention due to their broad-spectrum antibacterial activity. Nano-silver, nano-copper, nano-zinc and their oxides are gradually applied in biomedical field. In this study, the classification and basic properties of nano-metallic materials such as conductivity, superplasticity, catalysis, and antibacterial activities were firstly introduced. Secondly, the common preparation techniques, including physical, chemical and biological methods, were summarized. Subsequently, four main antibacterial mechanisms, such as cell membrane, oxidative stress, DNA destruction and cell respiration reduction, were summarized. Finally, the effect of size, shape, concentration and surface chemical characteristics of nano-metals and their oxides on antibacterial effectiveness and the research status of biological safety such as cytotoxicity, genotoxicity and reproductive toxicity were reviewed. At present, although nano-metals and their oxides have been applied in medical antibacterial, cancer treatment and other clinical fields, some issues such as the development of green preparation technology, the understanding of antibacterial mechanism, the improvement of biosafety, and the expansion of application fields, require further exploration.

PMID:37154317 | DOI:10.13345/j.cjb.220536


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