Biosensors (Basel). 2022 Jul 11;12(7):508. doi: 10.3390/bios12070508.
Porous nanomaterials have attracted much attention in the field of electrochemiluminescence (ECL) analysis research because of their large specific surface area, high porosity, possession of multiple functional groups, and ease of modification. Porous nanomaterials can not only serve as good carriers for loading ECL luminophores to prepare nanomaterials with excellent luminescence properties, but they also have a good electrical conductivity to facilitate charge transfer and substance exchange between electrode surfaces and solutions. In particular, some porous nanomaterials with special functional groups or centered on metals even possess excellent catalytic properties that can enhance the ECL response of the system. ECL composites prepared based on porous nanomaterials have a wide range of applications in the field of ECL biosensors due to their extraordinary ECL response. In this paper, we reviewed recent research advances in various porous nanomaterials commonly used to fabricate ECL biosensors, such as ordered mesoporous silica (OMS), metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), covalent organic frameworks (COFs) and metal-polydopamine frameworks (MPFs). Their applications in the detection of heavy metal ions, small molecules, proteins and nucleic acids are also summarized. The challenges and prospects of constructing ECL biosensors based on porous nanomaterials are further discussed. We hope that this review will provide the reader with a comprehensive understanding of the development of porous nanomaterial-based ECL systems in analytical biosensors and materials science.