Sci Rep. 2023 Jan 17;13(1):883. doi: 10.1038/s41598-023-27618-z.
Salinity is one of the most important abiotic stresses that reduce plant growth and performance by changing physiological and biochemical processes. In addition to improving the crop, using nanomaterials in agriculture can reduce the harmful effects of environmental stresses, particularly salinity. A factorial experiment was conducted in the form of a completely randomized design with two factors including salt stress at three levels (0, 50, and 100 mM NaCl) and chitosan-salicylic acid nanocomposite at three levels (0, 0.1, and 0.5 mM). The results showed reductions in chlorophylls (a, b, and total), carotenoids, and nutrient elements (excluding sodium) while proline, hydrogen peroxide, malondialdehyde, total soluble protein, soluble carbohydrate, total antioxidant, and antioxidant enzymes activity increased with treatment chitosan-salicylic acid nanocomposite (CS-SA NCs) under different level NaCl. Salinity stress reduced Fm’, Fm, and Fv/Fm by damage to photosynthetic systems, but treatment with CS-SA NCs improved these indices during salinity stress. In stress-free conditions, applying the CS-SA NCs improved the grapes’ physiological, biochemical, and nutrient elemental balance traits. CS-SA NCs at 0.5 mM had a better effect on the studied traits of grapes under salinity stress. The CS-SA nanoparticle is a biostimulant that can be effectively used to improve the grape plant yield under salinity stress.