Proteinoid Polymers and Nanocapsules for Cancer Diagnostics, Therapy and Theranostics: In Vitro and In Vivo Studies

J Funct Biomater. 2023 Apr 11;14(4):215. doi: 10.3390/jfb14040215.


Proteinoids-simple polymers composed of amino acids-were suggested decades ago by Fox and coworkers to form spontaneously by heat. These special polymers may self-assemble in micrometer structures called proteinoid microspheres, presented as the protocells of life on earth. Interest in proteinoids increased in recent years, in particular for nano-biomedicine. They were produced by stepwise polymerization of 3-4 amino acids. Proteinoids based on the RGD motif were prepared for targeting tumors. Nanocapsules form by heating proteinoids in an aqueous solution and slowly cooling to room temperature. Proteinoid polymers and nanocapsules suit many biomedical applications owing to their non-toxicity, biocompatibility and immune safety. Drugs and/or imaging reagents for cancer diagnostic, therapeutic and theranostic applications were encapsulated by dissolving them in aqueous proteinoid solutions. Here, recent in vitro and in vivo studies are reviewed.

PMID:37103305 | DOI:10.3390/jfb14040215


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